From 9/11’s ashes, a new world took shape. It did not last.
FILE - In this Saturday, Sept. 15, 2001 file photo, the Statue of Liberty stands in front of a smoldering lower Manhattan at dawn, seen from Jersey City, N.J. The Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States nearly 20 years ago precipitated profound changes in America and the world.
FILE - In this Thursday July 29, 2021 file photo, a group thought to be migrants from Tunisia aboard precarious wooden boats wait to be assisted by a team of the Spanish NGO Open Arms, around 20 miles southwest from the Italian island of Lampedusa, in Italian SAR zone. The NGO assisted more than 170 people who arrived next to the Italian island on board six different wooden dinghies, before the Italian authorities took them to land.
FILE - In this Sunday, Aug. 15, 2021 file photo, a U.S. Chinook helicopter flies over the U.S. embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan. Helicopters landed at the embassy as diplomatic vehicles left the compound amid the Taliban advance on the Afghan capital.
J. Scott Applewhite
FILE - In this Friday, Sept. 11, 2020 file photo, a plane takes off from Washington Reagan National Airport as a large U.S. flag is unfurled at the Pentagon ahead of ceremonies at the National 9/11 Pentagon Memorial to honor the 184 people killed in the 2001 terrorist attack on the Pentagon, in Washington, Friday, Sept. 11, 2020.
An Army carry team marches toward a transfer case containing the remains of Spc. Kyle E. Gilbert at Dover Air Force Base, Del., Wednesday, Sept. 23, 2015. According to the Department of Defense, Gilbert, 24, of Buford, Ga., died in a non-combat related incident Sept. 21, 2015 in Bagram, Afghanistan.
FILE - In this Monday, May 2, 2011 file photo, crowds climb trees and celebrate in Lafayette Park in front of the White House in Washington after President Barack Obama announced that Osama bin Laden had been killed.
FILE - In this Saturday, June 24, 2017 file photo, Zeid Ali, 12, left, and Hodayfa Ali, 11, comfort each other after their house was hit and collapsed during fighting between Iraqi forces and Islamic State militants in Mosul, Iraq. The Ali cousins said some of their family members are still under the rubble.
FILE - In this Saturday, April 29, 2006 photo, children holding U.S. flags march down Broadway during the 19th Annual Sikh Day Parade in New York. Since Sept. 11, 2001, many Sikhs have been mistaken for Muslims and have become targets. As a result, they have been at the forefront of civil rights advocacy against religious and racial profiling.
FILE - In this Monday, April 2, 2007 file photo, a U.S. soldier of B company, 4th Infantry Regiment frisks an afghan man in his house during a search operation in Sinan village in Zabul province, southeastern Afghanistan.
M. Spencer Green
FILE - In this March 15, 2010 file photo, a volunteer passes through the first full body scanner installed at O'Hare International Airport in Chicago. The technology produces a cartoon-like outline rather than naked images of passengers by using X-rays.
FILE - In this Saturday Jan. 9, 2016 file photo, right-wing demonstrators hold a sign which reads, "Rapefugees not welcome - !Stay away!" and a sign with a crossed out mosque as they march in Cologne, Germany. Women's rights activists, far-right demonstrators and left-wing counter-protesters all took to the streets of Cologne on Saturday in the aftermath of a string of New Year's Eve sexual assaults and robberies in Cologne blamed largely on foreigners.
FILE - In this Nov. 19, 2001 file photo, Northern Alliance soldiers watch as U.S. air strikes attack Taliban positions in Kunduz province, Afghanistan.
FILE - In this Tuesday, July 4, 2017 file photo, fleeing Iraqi civilians walk past the heavily damaged al-Nuri mosque as Iraqi forces continue their advance against Islamic State militants in the Old City of Mosul, Iraq. As Iraqi forces continued to advance on the last few hundred square kilometers of Mosul held by the Islamic State group, the country's Prime Minister said Tuesday the gains show Iraqis reject terrorism.
FILE - In this March 11, 2004 file photo, rescue workers cover bodies alongside a bomb-damaged passenger train, following a number of explosions in Madrid, Spain, which killed more than 170 rush-hour commuters and wounded more than 500 in Spain's worst terrorist attack ever. An Al-Qaida-linked group that claimed responsibility for the Madrid train bombings warned European nations that they have only two weeks to withdraw troops from Iraq or face the consequences, a pan-Arab newspaper reported Friday, July 2, 2004.
FILE - In this Saturday, Sept. 15, 2001 file photo, activists of Pakistan militant religious parties stand with a banner which reads, "Americans, think why you are hated all over the world," during a rally in Islamabad, Pakistan to condemn possible U.S. attacks on neighboring Afghanistan. People are fearing here that the U.S. will attack on Afghanistan in retaliation of the attacks in New York and Washington earlier in the week.
FILE - In this Thursday, Sept. 13, 2001 file photo, Liberty County resident Rev. M. Timonthy Elder, Sr., retired, repositions one of his wind-blown U.S. flags in Bristol, Fla. Rev. Elder displayed the flags as a show of his family's support for America following terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington two days earlier.
FILE - In this Wednesday, Aug. 13, 2014 file photo, a member of the St. Louis County Police Department points his weapon in the direction of a group of protesters in Ferguson, Mo. On Saturday, Aug. 9, 2014, a white police officer fatally shot Michael Brown, a Black teenager, in the St. Louis suburb.
FILE - In this May 31, 2020 file photo, police deploy tear gas to disperse a crowd during a protest in Philadelphia over the death of George Floyd. Floyd died May 25, 2020 after he was pinned at the neck by a white Minneapolis police officer.
FILE - Iraqi civilians and U.S. soldiers pull down a statue of Saddam Hussein in downtown Baghdad, in this April 9, 2003 file photo. The U.S. invaded Iraq on false claims that Hussein was hiding weapons of mass destruction.
FILE - In this Wednesday, May 7, 2008 file photo, U.S. Marines from the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit try to take shelter from a sand storm at forward operating base Dwyer in the Helmand province of southern Afghanistan.
FILE - In this Thursday, Aug. 19, 2021 file photo, Taliban fighters patrol Kabul, Afghanistan,. The Taliban celebrated Afghanistan's Independence Day on Thursday by declaring they beat the United States, but challenges to their rule ranging from running a country severely short on cash and bureaucrats to potentially facing an armed opposition began to emerge.
In the ghastly rubble of Ground Zero’s fallen towers 20 years ago, Hour Zero arrived, a chance to start anew.
World affairs reordered abruptly on that morning of blue skies, black ash, fire and death.
In Iran, chants of “death to America” quickly gave way to candlelight vigils to mourn the American dead. Vladimir Putin weighed in with substantive help as the U.S. prepared to go to war in Russia’s region of influence.
Libya’s Moammar Gadhafi, a murderous dictator with a poetic streak, spoke of the “human duty” to be with Americans after “these horrifying and awesome events, which are bound to awaken human conscience.”
From the first terrible moments, America’s longstanding allies were joined by longtime enemies in that singularly galvanizing instant. No nation with global standing was cheering the stateless terrorists. How rare is that?
Too rare to last, it turned out.
Civilizations have their allegories for rebirth in times of devastation. A global favorite is that of the phoenix, a magical and magnificent bird, rising from ashes. In the hellscape of Germany at the end of World War II, the concept of Hour Zero, or Stunde Null, offered the opportunity to start anew.
For the U.S., the zero hour of Sept. 11, 2001, meant a chance to reshape its place in the post-Cold War world from a high perch of influence and goodwill. This was only a decade after the Soviet Union’s collapse left America with both the moral authority and the military and financial muscle to be unquestionably the lone superpower.
Those advantages were soon squandered. Instead of a new order, 9/11 fueled 20 years of war abroad. In the U.S., it gave rise to the angry, aggrieved, self-proclaimed patriot, and heightened surveillance and suspicion in the name of common defense.
It opened an era of deference to the armed forces as lawmakers pulled back on oversight as presidents gave primacy to the military over law enforcement in counterterrorism. It sparked anti-immigrant sentiment, primarily directed at Muslim countries, that lingers today.
What most nations agreed was a war of necessity in Afghanistan was followed two years later by a war of choice as the U.S. invaded Iraq on false claims that Saddam Hussein was hiding weapons of mass destruction.
Thus opened the deep, deadly mineshaft of “forever wars.” Convulsions ran through the Middle East and U.S. foreign policy — long a force for ballast — gave way to a head-snapping change from Bush to Obama to Trump. Trust in America’s leadership and reliability waned.
Other parts of the world were not immune. Far-right populist movements coursed through Europe. Britain voted to break away from the European Union. China steadily ascended in the global pecking order.
Now, President Joe Biden is trying to restore trust, but there is no easy path. He is ending war, but what comes next?
In Afghanistan in August, the Taliban seized control with menacing swiftness as the Afghan government and security forces that the U.S. and its allies had spent two decades trying to build collapsed. No steady hand was evident from the U.S. in the disorganized evacuation of Afghans desperately trying to flee the country.
In the United States, the 2001 attacks had set loose a bloodlust cry for revenge. A swath of American society embraced the binary outlook articulated by Bush — “Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists” — and has never let go of it.
Factionalism hardened, in school board fights, on Facebook posts, and in national politics, so that opposing views were treated as propaganda from mortal enemies. The concept of enemy also evolved, to include immigrants as well as terrorists.
The patriot under threat became a personal and political identity. Trump would harness it to help him win the presidency.
For the U.S., the presidencies since Bush’s wars have been marked by an effort to pull back the military from the conflicts of the Middle East and Central Asia.
The perception of a U.S. retreat has allowed Russia and China to gain influence in the regions and left U.S. allies struggling to understand Washington’s place in the world. The notion that 9/11 would create an enduring unity of interest to combat terrorism collided with rising nationalism and a U.S. president, Trump, who spoke disdainfully of the NATO allies that in 2001 had rallied to America’s cause.
To be sure, the succession of U.S. presidents since 9/11 scored important achievements in shoring up security, and so far U.S. territory has remained safe from more international terrorism anywhere on the scale of that Sept. 11.
Globally, U.S.-led forces weakened al-Qaida, which has failed to launch a major attack on the West since 2005. The Iraq invasion rid the world of a murderous dictator in Saddam.
Yet deadly chaos soon followed his overthrow. The Bush administration, in its nation-building haste, had failed to plan for keeping order, leaving Islamist extremists and rival militias to fight for dominance.
Today, the legacies of 9/11 ripple both in obvious and unusual ways.
Most directly, millions of people in the U.S. and Europe go about their public business under the constant gaze of security cameras while other surveillance tools scoop up private communications. The government layered post-9/11 bureaucracies on to law enforcement to support the expansive security apparatus.
Militarization is more evident now, from large cities to small towns that now own military vehicles and weapons that seem well out of proportion to any terrorist threat. Government offices have become fortifications; airports a security maze.
But as profound an event as 9/11 was, its effect on how the world has been ordered was temporary and largely undone by domestic political forces, a global economic downturn and now a lethal pandemic.
The awakening of human conscience predicted by Gadhafi didn’t last. Gadhafi didn’t last.
Osama bin Laden has been dead for a decade. Saddam was hanged in 2006. The forever wars now are over or ending. The days of Russia tactically enabling the U.S., and China not standing in the way, petered out.
Only the phoenix lasts.
Rising reported from Bangkok; Knickmeyer and Woodward from Washington. AP National Security Writer Robert Burns contributed to this report.